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March 1

1861- The U.S. Congress refuses to consider Virginia's peace conference

1864- Pres. Lincoln nominates Gen. Ulysses S. Grant for the newly created rank of
lieutenant general.

March 2

1861- The U.S. Congress passes the Morrill Tariff Act, a high protective tariff, long
opposed by the South.

1862- Polk abandons the Rebels' Mississippi River stronghold at Columbus, Ky.

1865- Sheridan destroys Early's remaining troops in the Shenandoah Valley at
Waynesboro, Va.

1867- U.S. Congress passes the Reconstruction Act, setting conditions for
reintegration of Southern states into the Union.

March 3

1862- Lincoln appoints Andrew Johnson military governor of Tennessee.

1863- The Lincoln and the U.S. Congress pass the first federal draft applicable to all
men between 20 and 45; exemptions are provided for by the payment of $300
or the hiring of a substitute.

1864- A Union cavalry raid on Richmond led by Brig Gen. Judson Kilpatrick and Col.
Ulric Dahlgren fails; Dahlgren is killed and incriminated in an assassination
plot against Jefferson Davis.

March 4

1861- Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated for his first term.

1864- Sherman's troops return to Vicksburg after a damaging, month-long raid on
Meridan, Miss.

      - Civil government is restored in Louisiana.

1865- Lincoln is inaugurated for a second term.

March 5

1861- Lincoln's cabinet is announced: State- William H. Seward;
Treasury- Salmon P. Chase; Navy- Gideon Welles;
War- Simon Cameron; Interior- Caleb B. Smith
Attorney General- Edward Bates;
Postmaster General- Montgomery Blair.

1862- Gen. Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard assumes command of the
Confederate Army of the Mississippi.

March 6

1831- Philip Henry Sheridan (USA) is born in Albany, N.Y.

1861- The Confederate cabinet is completed: State- Robert Toombs;
War- Leroy P. Walker; Navy- Stephen R. Mallory
Treasury- Christopher G. Memminger;
Attorney General- Judah P. Benjamin;
Postmaster General- John H. Reagan.

      - The Confederacy calls for 100,000 volunteers.

1862- Lincoln proposes to Congress the gradual, compensated emancipation of
border-state slaves.

      - The Monitor , the first Federal ironclad, leaves New York.

March 7

1862- The raised Federal warship Merrimac ,converted to the Confederate ironclad
Virginia at Norfolk, is prepared for a trial run in Hampton Roads, Va.

      - Battle of Pea Ridge (Elkhorn Tavern), Ark., biggest battle of the West, begins.

1865- Hugh McCulloch replaces William Fessenden as U.S. Secretary of the

March 8

1862- Confederated lose the two-day Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark., ensuring Union
control of Missouri.

      - The Virginia (Merrimac) enters Hampton Roads, destroying the U.S.S
Cumberland and damages two other Union warships.

1863- Grant abandons his attempts to bypass Vicksburg's river defenses via the
Canal and Lake Providence routes.

March 9

1862- Modern era of naval warfare begins as the ironclads Monitor and Merrimac
battle at Hampton Roads, Va.

March 10

1863- Pres. Lincoln issues a proclamation of amnesty to soldiers absent without
leave, if they report before April 1.

March 11

1861- The Confederacy adopts a permanent Constitution.

1862- Halleck is given command of all Federal forces in the West.

      - Pres. Lincoln relieves George B. McClellan from his post as General-in-Chief
of the U.S. Armies. But, he retains command of the Army of the Potomac.

1865- Sherman reaches Fayetteville, N.C., and re-establishes contact with Federal
forces on the coast.

March 12

1862- A naval force occupies Jacksonville, Fla.

1864- Grant, promoted to the rank of lieutenant general, becomes General-in-Chief
of the U.S. armies.

      - Red River campaign begins under Union Gen. Nathaniel Banks.

March 13

1863- Explosion at the Confederate Ordinance Laboratory in Richmond kills or
injures 69.

1865- The Confederate Congress authorizes the use of slaves as combat soldiers.

March 14

1862- Southern forces abandon New Madrid, Mo., opening the way for a Union
attack on Island No. 10 in the Mississippi.

       - Burnside takes New Bern, N.C.

1863- Adm. Farragut leads his Union flotilla up the Mississippi at night, past the
batteries at Port Hudson, La.

March 15

1861- Montgomery Blair, alone among Lincoln's cabinet members, advises the
reinforcement of Anderson at Fort Sumter.

1863- In San Francisco, authorities seize the schooner J.M. Chapman, about to
depart with 20 alleged secessionists and 6 Dahlgren guns.

1864- Porter's Union flotilla reaches Alexandria, La., to spearhead the Red River

March 16

1862- Martial law is instituted by the U.S. in San Francisco in response to rumors
of possible attack.

1865- Federal troops restore order in New York City.

March 17

1862- Grant assumes command of the Federal army at Pittsburgh Landing, Tenn.

      - Davis completes the reorganization of the Confederate cabinet, with Judah P.
Benjamin succeeding R.M.T. Hunter as Sec. of State, George W. Randolph
taking Benjamin's place as Sec. of War, and Thomas H. Watts replacing
Thomas Bragg as Attorney General.

1863- Grant's Yazoo Pass expedition is blocked at Rebel Fort Pemberton.

1864- Lt. Gen. Grant formally assumes command of the Armies of the U.S.

1865- Maj. Gen. E.R.S. Canby opens a Federal attack on Mobile.

March 18

1864- Sherman assumes command of the principal Union armies in the West.

1865- In the midst of contention with Pres. Davis, Confederate Congress adjourns
its last session

March 19

1861- In Texas, Forts Clark, Inge, and Lancaster are surrendered by Federal troops.

1865- Sherman repulses Johnston's attack at Bentonville, N.C., and the Rebels
retreat toward Raleigh.

March 20

1862- Stonewall Jackson pursues withdrawing Union troops toward Winchester, Va.

March 21

1861- Louisiana ratifies the Confederate Constitution.

1863- Sherman rescues Rear Adm. David Dixon Porter's ironclads, trapped in
Steel's Bayou, ending another attempt to reach Vicksburg's rear.

1865- Battle of Bentonville, N.C., is the last significant Confederate effort to halt
Sherman's advance.

March 22

1817- Braxton Bragg (CSA) is born in Warrenton, N.C.

1865- Maj. Gen. James H. Wilson launches a sweeping Federal cavalry raid into
Northern Alabama.

March 23

1862- First Battle of Kernstown, Va., marks the opening of the Shenandoah

1864- Frederick Steele advances from Little Rock, Ark., to join the Union Red River

1865- Sherman occupies Goldsboro, N.C.

March 24

1864- President Lincoln meets with  U.S. Grant, General-in-Chief of the U.S.
Armies, at the White House.

March 25

1863- Burnside is appointed commander of the Department of the Ohio with orders
to operate eastern Tennessee.

1864- Nathaniel P. Banks assumes command of the Red River Campaign.

1865- Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon captures Fort Stedman at Petersburg but is forced
to retreat under heavy Federal counterattacks.

      - Union troops begin siege of Mobile, Ala.

March 26

1863- West Virginia voters approve gradual emancipation of slaves.

March 27

1865- Pres. Lincoln meets with Generals Grant and Sherman and Adm. Porter
aboard the River Queen at City Point, Va.

      - Sheridan rejoins the Army of the Potomac.

March 28

1818- Wade Hampton (CSA) is born in Charleston, S.C.

1863- The Confederate invasion of New Mexico is halted at the Battle of Glorieta.

March 29

1861- Lincoln's cabinet takes a stronger stand on holding Federal forces in the

1862- A.S. Johnston reassembles Confederate Western forces at Corinth, Miss.

1865- Appomattox Campaign begins.

March 30

1864- Confederates attack Synder's Bluff, Miss.

March 31

1862- Pres. Lincoln recalls some of McClellan's troops to help protect Washington.